Initiation of extracorporeal photopheresis in lung transplant patients with mild to moderate refractory BOS: A single-center real-life experience.

BACKGROUND: Bronchiolitis obliterans syndrome (BOS) is the main limitation to long-term survival following lung transplantation. Several studies generated promising results regarding the efficacy of extracorporeal photopheresis (ECP) in BOS management. We aimed to compare FEV1 evolution in ECP-treated versus non-ECP treated patients among BOS recipients. METHODS: Overall, 25 BOS patients were included after receiving optimized treatment. Data were collected retrospectively. Twelve patients with moderate and refractory BOS received ECP treatment. RESULTS: Among non-ECP treated control patients (n = 13), six experienced persistent decline without undergoing ECP for various reasons. ECP stabilized pre-ECP lung function during the subsequent 6 to 24 months (repeated measures one-way Anova, p = 0.002), without any significant impact observed by either FEV1 decline speed prior to ECP or time between BOS diagnosis and ECP onset. ECP-treated patients displayed a similar risk of an additional permanent 20% or higher drop in FEV1 after BOS onset compared to controls, but a lower risk compared to control decliners (p = 0.05). ECP quickly stabilized FEV1 decline in refractory BOS patients compared to non-treated decliners. CONCLUSIONS: We confirmed that this therapeutic option against refractory BOS can be managed in a medium-size LTx center, with a satisfactory efficacy and an acceptable tolerance. Copyright © 2022 SPLF and Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.
BACKGROUND:
There is no standard definition for “HLA incompatible” transplants. For the first time, we systematically assessed how HLA incompatibility was defined in contemporary peer-reviewed publications and its prognostic implication to transplant outcomes.
 
METHODS:
We combined 2 independent searches of MEDLINE, EMBASE, and the Cochrane Library from 2015 to 2019. Content-expert reviewers screened for original research on outcomes of HLA-incompatible transplants (defined as allele or molecular mismatch and solid-phase or cell-based assays). We ascertained the completeness of reporting on a predefined set of variables assessing HLA incompatibility, therapies, and outcomes. Given significant heterogeneity, we conducted narrative synthesis and assessed risk of bias in studies examining the association between death-censored graft failure and HLA incompatibility.
 
RESULTS:
Of 6656 screened articles, 163 evaluated transplant outcomes by HLA incompatibility. Most articles reported on cytotoxic/flow T-cell crossmatches (n = 98). Molecular genotypes were reported for selected loci at the allele-group level. Sixteen articles reported on epitope compatibility. Pretransplant donor-specific HLA antibodies were often considered (n = 143); yet there was heterogeneity in sample handling, assay procedure, and incomplete reporting on donor-specific HLA antibodies assignment. Induction (n = 129) and maintenance immunosuppression (n = 140) were frequently mentioned but less so rejection treatment (n = 72) and desensitization (n = 70). Studies assessing death-censored graft failure risk by HLA incompatibility were vulnerable to bias in the participant, predictor, and analysis domains.
 
CONCLUSIONS:
Optimization of transplant outcomes and personalized care depends on accurate HLA compatibility assessment. Reporting on a standard set of variables will help assess generalizability of research, allow knowledge synthesis, and facilitate international collaboration in clinical trials.