Initiation of extracorporeal photopheresis in lung transplant patients with mild to moderate refractory BOS: A single-center real-life experience.

BACKGROUND: Bronchiolitis obliterans syndrome (BOS) is the main limitation to long-term survival following lung transplantation. Several studies generated promising results regarding the efficacy of extracorporeal photopheresis (ECP) in BOS management. We aimed to compare FEV1 evolution in ECP-treated versus non-ECP treated patients among BOS recipients. METHODS: Overall, 25 BOS patients were included after receiving optimized treatment. Data were collected retrospectively. Twelve patients with moderate and refractory BOS received ECP treatment. RESULTS: Among non-ECP treated control patients (n = 13), six experienced persistent decline without undergoing ECP for various reasons. ECP stabilized pre-ECP lung function during the subsequent 6 to 24 months (repeated measures one-way Anova, p = 0.002), without any significant impact observed by either FEV1 decline speed prior to ECP or time between BOS diagnosis and ECP onset. ECP-treated patients displayed a similar risk of an additional permanent 20% or higher drop in FEV1 after BOS onset compared to controls, but a lower risk compared to control decliners (p = 0.05). ECP quickly stabilized FEV1 decline in refractory BOS patients compared to non-treated decliners. CONCLUSIONS: We confirmed that this therapeutic option against refractory BOS can be managed in a medium-size LTx center, with a satisfactory efficacy and an acceptable tolerance. Copyright © 2022 SPLF and Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.
There is no standard definition for “HLA incompatible” transplants. For the first time, we systematically assessed how HLA incompatibility was defined in contemporary peer-reviewed publications and its prognostic implication to transplant outcomes.
We combined 2 independent searches of MEDLINE, EMBASE, and the Cochrane Library from 2015 to 2019. Content-expert reviewers screened for original research on outcomes of HLA-incompatible transplants (defined as allele or molecular mismatch and solid-phase or cell-based assays). We ascertained the completeness of reporting on a predefined set of variables assessing HLA incompatibility, therapies, and outcomes. Given significant heterogeneity, we conducted narrative synthesis and assessed risk of bias in studies examining the association between death-censored graft failure and HLA incompatibility.
Of 6656 screened articles, 163 evaluated transplant outcomes by HLA incompatibility. Most articles reported on cytotoxic/flow T-cell crossmatches (n = 98). Molecular genotypes were reported for selected loci at the allele-group level. Sixteen articles reported on epitope compatibility. Pretransplant donor-specific HLA antibodies were often considered (n = 143); yet there was heterogeneity in sample handling, assay procedure, and incomplete reporting on donor-specific HLA antibodies assignment. Induction (n = 129) and maintenance immunosuppression (n = 140) were frequently mentioned but less so rejection treatment (n = 72) and desensitization (n = 70). Studies assessing death-censored graft failure risk by HLA incompatibility were vulnerable to bias in the participant, predictor, and analysis domains.
Optimization of transplant outcomes and personalized care depends on accurate HLA compatibility assessment. Reporting on a standard set of variables will help assess generalizability of research, allow knowledge synthesis, and facilitate international collaboration in clinical trials.